AKSARA SUNDA: SUNDANESE SCRIPT AND WRITING SYSTEM

 

English Translation from:
Chapter II and III of book: "Direktori Aksara Sunda untuk Unicode"

 

Translated by:
Dian Tresna Nugraha

Revision date:
December 6, 2008

Contents:

2 Old Sundanese Script (Aksara Sunda Kuna) 3

2.1 Study of Local Scripts in Indonesia. 3

2.2 Influence of Indic Script 3

2.3 History of Sundanese Script 4

2.4 Typology of Sundanese Script 5

2.5 Symbols and Writing System of Old Sundanese Script 8

3 Sundanese Script Standardization.. 14

3.1 Goals and Objectives. 14

3.2 Sundanese Script (Standard) 15

3.3 Writing in Pasangan (Pairs) 17

3.4 Geometry. 18

 

[BEGIN TRANSLATION]

 

2 Old Sundanese Script (Aksara Sunda Kuna)

2.1 Study of Local Scripts in Indonesia

J. G. de Casparis (1975) compiled a book entitled "Indonesian Palaeography: A History of Writing in Indonesian from the Beginning to ca. A.D. 1500". The book contains the development of writing systems in Indonesia, especially in Java and Bali islands because the data from those areas are presented in more complete way. On the other hand, there is also "Tabel van Oud- en Nieuw- Indische Alphabetten", a book written by K. F. Holle (1877), which can be considered as "the pilot" for studying different Indic scripts and surroundings (e.g. Gujarat, Kashmir, Punjab, Nepal, Tibet, Bengal, Tamil, Myanmar, Thailand, Malay, Khmer, Kampuchea, Vietnam). The book contains also tables of scripts from those areas since beginning till ca. 18th century which were used to write on declarations on stones or metals, as well as to write story and history on bamboo's blocks, lontar, nipah (palm leaves), early papers and daluang (mulberry leaves).

Today in Indonesia, the skillset which focus on the study of old scripts or writing systems is only not monopolized by one field of science. Scientists who study the script can be categorized into three groups[1]. First group study the scripts written on stone materials, cupper blocks, or other metal blocks which use Pallawa derived scripts. The field of study is called epigraphy. Although the writings on those materials exist until now, epigraphy in Indonesia focuses on materials created until early 16th  century.

Second group studies the writings on different skin materials (tree skins or animal skins), leaves (lontar, palm, coconut, daluang), and papers (local or imported) which uses Arabic or local scripts  from 8th  until end of 19th  century. The field of study is called philology.

Third study, called archivology, focuses on the writings on papers materials (especially from Europe) and Latin script. Those documents may contain the relationship between Indonesian kingdoms and European countries / traders which had important roles in the stage of Indonesian history.

Nevertheless, if we look into the object of studies, there is not much difference between the three groups and they are often categorized as palaeography. They study on a old document and tell other people about the content of the text. They also study on the writing systems as well as its evolution.

2.2 Influence of Indic Script

The influence can be differentiated into three types:

1.       Early-Pallawa. similar to Calukya and Venggi models

2.       Later-Pallawa, similar to Pali (Ava and Siam) and Kampuchea models

3.       Nagari, similar to Devanagari and Nepal models.

Figure 1 Prasastis from Tarumanagara

Early-Pallawa script were used on "prasasti"s (declaration stones) from 3rd till 5th centuries in South Indian and Srilanka. In Sundanese (West Javanese) region, this script were used on prasastis from Tarumanagara Kingdom, such as prasasti Kebonkopi I (ca. 450 A.D.), Ciaruteun (ca. 450 A.D.), Jambu (ca. 450 A.D.), and Tugu (ca. 450 A.D.). There is also prasasti Muara Kaman (ca 400 A.D.) in Kutai, East Kalimantan (Kern, 1917; Holle, 1877, 1882). Pictures below show the prasastis from Tarumanagara.

Figure 2 Prasastis from Tarumanagara

Later-Pallawa script were used on prasastis between 6th until 8th centuries. This script appeared on prasasti Tuk Mas (ca. 500 A.D.) and Canggal (732 A.D.). Prasasti Canggal contain the last text written on Pallawa-based script in Indonesia (Kern, 1917; Casparis, 1975). This script type was also used on prasastis from Sriwijaya kingdoms in South Sumatera, using old Malay language, such as prasasti: Kedukan Bukit (683 A.D.), Talang Tuwo (683 A.D.), and Kotakapur (686 A.D.)

In West Java an old Malay prasasti was found near prasasti Kebon Kopi I so it is named prasasti Kebon Kopi II (536 A.D.) (Djafar, 1991:24). This prasasti tells about Rakryan Juru Pangambat (Your Highness The See-er), heirs of throne for the king of Sunda.

Despite of abundance of prasastis, documents in form of papers or leaves from this Tarumanagara era (5th - 7th centuries) have never been found. It has been understood because texts written on those "soft materials" might have been destroyed due to change of weather, compared to the documents written on hard materials (stones or metals).

2.3 History of Sundanese Script

As one of the oldest civilization in Indonesia (since 16th centuries ago), Sundanese culture has left plenty of written artifacts such as prasasti, declarations, awards, and old documents. These show writing culture in Sundanese people from that era and present facts about the conscience from those people about the importance of spreading of information as results of thinking and feeling process, by using its language and scripts on each passed period[2].

Kern (1917) in a book entitled "Versvreide Geschriften; Inschripties van den Indichen Archipel" presented facts and archeological maps, in form of inscriptions and facsimiles, about prasastis from Tarumanagara[3]. This shows writing skills from 5th century.

Next, in the Sunda Kingdom era (Pakuan Pajajaran and Galuh, 8th - 16th century), not only artifacts from stones and declarations have been found, such as Geger Hanjuang, Sanghyang Tapak, Kawali, Batutulis, and Kebantenan, but also plenty of documents on soft materials (lontar, palm, coconut, bamboo, daluang) from different Sundanese areas.  The oldest texts from these area ranges from around 14th – 16th centuries. Several texts have been studied, such as: Carita Parahyangan (CP),  Fragment Carita Parahyangan (FCP), Bujangga Manik (BM), Sri Ajnyana, Purnawijaya, Sanghyang Siksakanda Ng Karesian, Sanghyang Raga Dewata, Sanghyang Hayu, Pantun Ramayana (PRR), Serat Dewabuda, Serat Buwana Pitu, Serat Catur Bumi, Sewaka Darma (SD), Amanat Galunggung, Darmajati, Jatiniskala, and Kawih Paningkes.

The findings of Sundanese texts from 20th centuries then documented on several reports in form of catalogue compiled by Juynboll (1899, 1912), Poerbatjaraka (1933), Pigeaud (1967-1968, 1970), Sutaarga (1973), Ekadjati, et. al. (1988), Viviane Sukanda-Tessier & Hasan Muarif Ambary (1990), and Ekadjati & Undang A. Darsa (1999). The texts which have been documented and inventoried are now kept as museum and library collection (government owned as well as private), in or outside Indonesia. Moreover, there are still plenty of non-inventoried texts which are still kept by communities and peoples.

2.4 Typology of Sundanese Script

Sundanese script was based on Later Pallawa script. Those scripts are similar to Tibet and Punjab scripts (compare with Holle, 1877) and have several influence from scripts written on Tarumanagara prasastis, before evolving into its own unique form. These can be seen from old Sundanese prasastis and documents (lontar and bamboos) from 14th – 18th centuries.

Earliest variant of Sundanese script can be seen on prasastis and declarations from Pakuan-Pajajaran and Galuh period, such as prasastis found in the area Kabuyutan Astanagede, Kawali, in Ciamis city, West Java, made under the ruling of Prabu (King) Niskalawastu Kancana (1365-1478), and prasasti Batutulis in Bogor (1533) and Kebantenan declaration in Bekasi. The latest two were made after Sri Baduga Maharaja era (1482-1521).

Prasastis from Kawali can be categorized as piteket, or direct announcement from a king who order to build such prasasti. On the other hand, prasasti Batutulis and Kebantenan declaration can be categorized as sasakala, or prasasti made as commemoration of commands or roles from someone (kings) who have passed away.

Following pictures show mentioned prasastis/declaration.

Figure 3 Prasasti Kawali I

Figure 4 Prasasti Kawali II

Figure 5 Prasasti Kawali III

Figure 6 Prasasti Batutulis

Figure 7 Prasasti Batutulis

On his analysis, K.F. Holle described the typology of the script on those prasastis as "modern schrift uit de Soenda-landen, en niet meer dan ± 1500 jaar oud" (modern script from Sundanese land, and not more than ± 1500 years old). In other words, the script was result of creativity from Sundanese people at that time.

Several old Sundanese lontar documents with Sundanese script and old Sundanese language can be seen from picture attachments below.

Carita Parahyangan

Fragmen Carita Parahyangan

Kisah Bujangga Manik

Carita Ratu Pakuan

Ajaran Sunan Gunung Djati (420)

Mix: Silsilah Siliwangi, Ajicakra, Darmapamulih, dan Shalat Fardhu (421)

Jatiraga (422)

Darmajati (423)

Bimasorga (623)

Figure 8 Old sundanese lontar documents with Sundanese script and Old-Sundanese language

Old sundanese script has 18 aksara ngalagena: ka ga nga ca ja nya ta da na pa ba ma ya ra la wa sa ha, plus 7 aksara swara: a, é, i, o, u, e, and eu. "Kaganga" ordering is used similar to that of old scripts from Sumatera and Javanese. In Indonesia, there are about 12 local scripts from Bali, Batak, Bengkulu, Bima, Bugis, (East/Central)Java, Komering, Lampung, Makassar, Pasemah, Rejang, and Sunda (West Java).

Not only used to write Sundanese language, Old-Sundanese script was also used to write Arabic and Javanese (Cirebon-style), in relation to spreading of Islamic teaching in Western Java. This can be shown in the following data:

(r.1) Bismilah hirahman hirahmin, assahhadu anlah (ha)ilahlalah, wassa adu ana mukamadan rasululah. Sun angawruhi (r.2) satuhuné, ora nu kasine(m)bah ing, hanané kang tetep, kang langgeng, kang suci, kang luwih suci, kang murba ing diri, ni wujud hél- (r.3) mu anu suhud. Lahi ya mahér luhu, lah iya hora kawula dadi gusti (Al)lah, hi mahér luhu. Punika tedak saking agama (su)ci, saking kang jeng

 

 

(v.1) Pangérra(n) Sumanagara, titi. Asahhadu sahé karbanyar suci alahhéka rasululah, banyu suci metu saking ti mulah karsa allah- (v.2) hu, hing dina saptu. Usali parilan anglalahor ri areba urakatin adaan imaman lilah ita alah, (Allah) huhabar. U(sa)li parelan (v.3) asri areba urakaatin adaan (imaman) lilah hita alah. Alah hu a(k)bar. Usali parelan magribi sarasa rakatin

 

Carita Waruga Guru is considered as the youngest document using old Sundanese language and script. The text was from 18th century and written on European paper.

 

Figure 9 Part of Carita Waruga Guru

2.5 Symbols and Writing System of Old Sundanese Script

From analysis to the fact presented in previous sections, we can see variations of glyphs which can be categorized based on:

·         writing materials (stones, metals, leaves, papers, nail, hammer, knive, pen, ink, etc.)

·         individual or group of persons

·         period of writing (spans 400 years)

·         area of writing (covers almost all of Western Java area)

For example, glyphs written on leaves using peso pangot (pangot knive) have variations compared to those written using ink and pen. Similarly, glyphs and spelling written in the 14th century (prasasti Kawali) have variations in comparison with those written in the 16th century (Carita Parahyangan, Carita Ratu Pakuan, etc). But in general, glyphs in Old Sundanese can be grouped as aksara ngalagena (consonant characters), swara (independent vowel characters), rarangkén (attachments), khusus (specials) and pasangan (paired/compound consonants).

In this section, we describe mainly the symbols and writing system found on soft-materials.

2.5.1 Swara (independent vowel) characters

There are 5 swara characters, which syllabically have the independent vowel sounds. Three of them were found to have two glyphs, /a/, /é/, and /i/. The three glyph variants were interchangeable in different texts. The followings are glyphs of swara characters.

 

2.5.2 Ngalagena characters

Ngalagena characters are symbols of sounds or consonants which syllabically has inherent /a/ sound. There are 18 ngalagena characters ordered based on the position of articulation instruments (guttural, palatal, lingual, dental, labial).

In addition, there are three glyph variants of 'nya' characters and two variants of 'ba' characters. Those glyphs are interchangeable in documents.

The followings are glyphs of swara characters.

2.5.3 Special characters

There are four characters which can not be considered ngalagena characters because syllabically they do not contain /a/ vowel. Moreover, these characters does not have specific attachments.

le/leu character is called pangwilet (Jv: ngalelet). re/reu character is called panglelet (Jv: pacerek).

The followings are complete glyphs of special characters.

 

2.5.4 Rarangkén (attachments)

Based on their location to the base glyph, 14 rarangkén can be categorized as:

·         rarangkén above the base glyph = 5 kinds

·         rarangkén below the base glyph = 2 kinds

·         rarangkén inline the base glyph = 6 kinds

a. Rarangkéns above the base glyph

1)

 =

panghulu, modifies ngalagena vowel /a/ to /i/.

 

 

 

= ka = ki

 

 

 

Example:  = kita (we)

2)

 =

pamepet, modifies ngalagena vowel /a/ to /e/.

 

 

 

= ka = ke.

 

 

 

Example:  = keta (indeed)

3)

 =

paneuleung, modifies ngalagena vowel /a/ to /eu/.

 

 

 

= ka  = keu.

 

 

 

Example: = keudeu (to force, to push)

4)

 =

panglayar, adds consonant sound /+r/ to the base sound.

 

 

 

= ka  = kar.

 

 

 

Example:  = karta

5)

 =

panyecek, adds consonant sound /+ng/ to the base sound.

 

 

 

= ka  = kang.

 

 

 

Example:  = kangga (to lift, to erect)

b. Rarangkéns below the base glyph

1)

 =

panyuku, modifies ngalagena vowel /a/ to /u/.

 

 

 

= ka  = ku.

 

 

 

Example:  = kuta (fortress)

2)

 =

panyakra, inserts consonant sound /+r/ to the base sound. Ending vowel can be modified with different vocalization rarangkén.

 

 

 

= ka  = kra.

 

 

 

Example:  = krama (local [marriage] custom)

c. Rarangkéns inline the base glyph

1)

 =

panéléng, modifies ngalagena vowel /a/ to /é/.

 

 

 

 

= ka  = ké.

 

 

 

Example:  = kéna (because)

2)

 =

panolong, modifies ngalagena vowel /a/ to /o/.

 

 

 

 

= ka = ko.

 

 

 

Example:  = koyo (forgot to do something)

3)

 =

pamingkal, inserts consonant sound /+y/ to the base sound. Ending vowel can be modified with different vocalization rarangkén.

 

 

 

= ka = kya.

 

 

 

Example:  = tyagi (temple)

4)

 =

pangwisad, adds consonant sound /+h/ to the base sound.

 

 

 

 

= ka  = kah.

 

 

 

Example:  = kawah (hell / mount crater)

5)

 =

patén or pamaéh, removes vowel sound of the base sound.

Example:  = awak (body)

 

 

 

 

= ka = k.

 

 

 

Special patén can also be found:

(a) , adds consonant sound /+k/ to the base sound, example: = anak (child);

(a)  , adds consonant sound /+m/ to the base sound, example: = banem (forest/woods)

6)

 =

separate the vocal /a/ from the base ngalagena sound.

 

 

 

Example:  = alun-agung (high ocean wave)

2.5.5 Pasangan (pairs/compound consonants)

Old Sundanese script has several pasangan form, or pairs- or compund consonants. A pasangan eliminates vowel sound of the base ngalagena character. There are pasangan umum (common) and pasangan khusus (special).

 

a. Pasangan umum (general pairs)

Pasangan umum generally can be attached to any ngalagena characters. There are four of them:

1)

 =

-ma-, as in word  = janma (human being)

2)

 =

-ra-, as in word   = prabu (raja)

3)

 =

-wa-, as in word = bwana (world)

4)

 =

-ya- , as in word = hyang (Hi: Deva, En: God)

 

-ra- and -ya- are also categorized as rarangkéns (panyakra and pamingkal).

 

b. Pasangan khusus (special pairs)

Several syllabic sounds are considered as pasangan khusus (special pairs) in the Old Sundanese script. They are either horizontally- or vertically arranged.

 

Vertical forms:

1)

 =

-kta-, as in word = byakta (proof, evidence)

2)

 =

-nca-, as in word = hanca (not yet)

3)

 =

-nda-, as in word = kanda (story, legend)

4)

 =

-nta-, as in word = santi (pure)

5)

 =

-nyja-, as in word = sanyjata (weapon)

6)

 =

-tna-, as in word = yatna (aware)

 

Horizontal forms:

1)

 =

-hda-, as in word = hdap ([human] character)

2)

 =

-hra-, as in word = cahrut (dirt)

3)

 =

-jya-, as in word = rajya (kingdom)

4)

 =

-mpa-, as in word = kampa (passionated)

2.5.6 Numbers

Several symbols in old Sundanese texts have values which can be considered as numbers. Those symbols are the followings:

 

Based on these basic numbers higher number can be constructed and written similar to Arabic numbers, i.e. from left to right.

2.5.7 Summary

The following tables summarize discussions above.

Table 1 Aksara Swara

Table 2 Aksara Ngalagena

Legend:

Prasasti:

Kwl. : Kawali

Btls. : Batutulis

Kbtn. : Kebantenan

Documents:

CP : Carita Parahyangan

FCP : Fragmen Carita Parahyangan

CRP : Carita Ratu Pakuan

PRR : Pantun Ramayana

SD : Sewaka Darma

BM : Bujangga Manik

 

Table 3 Rarangkén and Numbers

Table 4 Pasangan

 

3 Sundanese Script Standardization

3.1 Goals and Objectives

Sundanese people has utilized many different scripts. When a choice is needed, there are several requirements to be considered: (a) a script that can record Sundanese language; (b) period of usage; (c) area of usage; (d) simplicity, easy to use; (e) shows Sundanese identity.

The Government of West Java Province has announced Peraturan Daerah (Local Regulation) No. 6 1996 about Sundanese Language, Literature, and Script. The regulation was motivated by Keputusan Presiden (President's Decision) No. 082/B/1991, 24 Juli 1991.

As follow up to the local regulation, on Tuesday, 21 October 1997 in the main hall of Japanese Language Study Centre, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor; a seminar entitled "Lokakarya Aksara Sunda", under cooperation between the Government of West Java Province and Faculty of Literature Universitas Padjadjaran,  was held and attended by delegations from local communities- or cities in West Java.  Several discussion results were achieved:

1.       Historical facts from 5th century until now have shown that there were 7 (seven) scripts used in West Javanese area: Pallawa, Pranagari, Sunda Kuno (Old Sundanese), Javanese (Carakan), Arabic (Pegon), Cacarakan, and Latin, with following timeline:

·         Pallawa and Pranagari: 5th – 7th centuries, i.e. about 3 centuries

·         Sunda Kuno (Old Sundanese): 14th – 18th centuries, i.e. about 5 centuries

·         Javanese (Carakan): 11th century and 17th – 19th centuries, i.e. about 4 centuries

·         Arabic (Pegon): 17th – mid of 20th centuries, i.e. about 3 centuries

·         Cacarakan: 19th – 20th centuries, i.e. about 2 centuries

·         Latin: end of 19th century – now, i.e. about 2 centuries

2.       "Sundanese Script" shall fulfill the following criteria: "Sundanese Script is an orthographical system created by the people of West Java which include script and writing system for writing Sundanese language." (Article 1.k of Local Government Regulation (Perda) No. 6 1996)

3.       From the basic requirements: simplicity, timeline, area of usage, usage (to write Sundanese), law (President's Decision No. 082/B/1991 24 Juli 1991 and Perda No. 6 1996), percentage of Sundanese people creativity, it can be concluded that the suitable script fulfilling those requirements is the Aksara Sunda Kuno (Old Sundanese Script). And now it is also agreed upon scholars that the script can simply be called Aksara Sunda (Sundanese Script).

4.       Since there were several variants in writing due to materials (stone, metal, skin, leaves, knives, ink, pen, hammer), timeline, and techniques, there shall be another criteria to choose for modern usage. And; considering the completeness and practicality, the variant found in soft-material-documents shall be used for modern usage.

5.       There was a tendency to name Cacarakan script as Sundanese Script by some people before. However, it can be traced back that the earliest source was a book written by G. J. Grashuis, "Handleiding voor Aanleren van het Soendaneesch Letterschrift" (Learning Sundanese Script) in year 1860. The book taught to write "Sundanese Script" but using "Cacarakan". The Cacarakan script itself only containts around 10% of innovation by Sundanese people, especially by reducing and simplifying the sounds in Javanese (Carakan) to suit Sundanese language (tongue).

6.       From the cultural point-of-view, Sundanese script is one part of Sundanese civilization and culture. Therefore, (re)spreading and (re)utilizing Sundanese script shall integrate with the task to maintain and conserve Sundanese culture as a whole. Thus, it will have broader scope as wide as the scope of the people itself.

7.       Respreading and reutilizing Sundanese script shall be done in several steps since it was not well-known by the community within the last three centuries. These steps are:

a)      Tahap Pawanohan (Introduction)

b)     Tahap Palomaan (Utilizing)

c)      Tahap Pangagulan (Proudness)

d)     Tahap Pamibandaan (Ownership)

Next, the existence and function of Sundanese Script in the social and cultural life of West Javanese people in modern life is supported by the West Javanese Governor's Decision No. 434/SK.614-Dis.PK/99 about "Standardization of Sundanese Script", Local Government's Regulation No. 5 2003 about "Conservation of Local Language, Literature, and Script", and Governor's Decision No. 3 2004.

3.2 Sundanese Script (Standard)

The standardized script has 32 basic characters, consists of 7 (seven) aksara Swara (independent vowels): a, é, i, o, u, e, and eu, and 23 aksara Ngalagena (consonants with vowel a): ka-ga-nga, ca-ja-nya, ta-da-na, pa-ba-ma, ya-ra-la, wa-sa-ha, fa-va-qa-xa-za).

The additional five sounds to the ngalagena characters were added to fulfill the purpose of Sundanese script as tool for recording the development of Sundanese language, especially by absorption of foreign words and sounds. However. the glyphs for the new characters are not new, but reusing several variants in old Sundanese script, for example: the glyphs for fa and va are variants of pa, the glyphs for qa and xa are variants of ka, and the glyph for za is variant of ja.

There are also rarangkéns or attachments for removing, modifying, or adding vowel or consonant sound to the base characters. 13 rarangkéns based on the position to the base can be categorized into three groups: (1) five rarangkéns above the base characters, (2) three rarangkéns below the base characters, and (3) five rarangkéns inline the base characters. In addition, there are glyphs for number characters, from zero to nine.

Graphically, ngalagena characters including rarangkéns have angle 45° – 75°. In general, the dimension ratio (height:width) is 4:4, except for the ngalagena character ra (4:3), ba and nya (4:6), and the swara character i (4:3). Rarangkéns have dimension ratio 2:2, except for panyecek (1:1), panglayar (4:2), panyakra (2:4), pamaéh (4:2) and pamingkal (2:4 bottom-side, 3:2 right-side). Numbers have ratio 4:4, except for number 4 and 5 (4:3).

3.2.1 Aksara Swara

= a

= é

= i

= o

= u

= e

= eu

 

 

3.2.2 Aksara Ngalagena

a. Aksara Ngalagena from Sundanese language

= ka

= ga

= nga

= ca

= ja

= nya

= ta

= da

= na

= pa

= ba

= ma

= ya

= ra

= la

= wa

= sa

= ha

 

b. Aksara Ngalagena for writing foreign words

= fa

= qa

= va

= xa

= za

 

3.2.3 Rarangkén

Based on their location to the base glyph, 14 rarangkén can be categorized as:

·         rarangkén above the base glyph = 5 kinds

·         rarangkén below the base glyph = 2 kinds

·         rarangkén inline the base glyph = 6 kinds

a. Rarangkéns above the base glyph

1)

°ᮤ

 =

panghulu, modifies ngalagena vowel /a/ to /i/.

Example: = ka ᮊᮤ = ki.

2)

°ᮨ

 =

pamepet, modifies ngalagena vowel /a/ to /e/.

Example: = ka ᮊᮨ = ke.

3)

°ᮩ

 =

paneuleung, modifies ngalagena vowel /a/ to /eu/.

Example: = ka ᮊᮩ = keu.

4)

°ᮁ

 =

panglayar, adds consonant sound /+r/ to the base sound.

Example: = ka ᮊᮁ = kar.

5)

°ᮀ

 =

panyecek, adds consonant sound /+ng/ to the base sound.

Example: = ka ᮊᮀ = kang.

 

b. Rarangkéns below the base glyph

1)

°ᮥ

 =

panyuku, modifies ngalagena vowel /a/ to /u/.

Example: = ka ᮊᮥ = ki.

2)

°ᮢ

 =

panyakra, inserts consonant sound /+r/ to the base sound. Ending vowel can be modified with different vocalization rarangkén. 

Example: = ka ᮊᮢ = kra.

3)

°ᮣ

 =

panyiku, inserts consonant sound /+l/ to the base sound. Ending vowel can be modified with different vocalization rarangkén. 

Example: = ka ᮊᮣ = kla.

 

c. Rarangkéns inline the base glyph

1)

°ᮦ

 =

panéléng, modifies ngalagena vowel /a/ to /é/.

Example: = ka ᮊᮦ = ké.

2)

°ᮧ

 =

panolong, modifies ngalagena vowel /a/ to /o/.

Example: = ka ᮊᮧ = ko.

3)

°ᮡ

 =

pamingkal, inserts consonant sound /+y/ to the base sound. Ending vowel can be modified with different vocalization rarangkén.

Example: = ka ᮊᮡ = kya.

4)

°ᮂ

 =

pangwisad, adds consonant sound /+h/ to the base sound.

Example: = ka ᮊᮂ = kah.

5)

°᮪

 =

paten or pamaéh, removes vowel sound of the base sound.

Example: = ka ᮊ᮪ = k.

 

Three rarangkéns can be attached to swara characters.

1.   Panglayar °ᮁ

 

= ar

= ér

= ir

= or

 

 

= ur

= er

= eur

 

 

2.   Panyecek °ᮀ

 

= ang

= éng

= ing

= ong

 

 

= ung

= eng

= eung

 

 

3.   Pangwisad °ᮂ

 

= ah

= éh

= ih

= oh

 

 

= uh

= eh

= euh

 

 

3.2.4 Numbers

 

= 1

= 2

= 3

 

 

= 4

= 5

= 6

 

 

= 7

= 8

= 9

 

 

= 0

 

 

 

In texts, numbers are written surrounded with dual pipe sign | ... |.

Example: |᮲᮰᮰᮸| = 2008

3.2.5 Punctuations

For modern use, Latin punctuations are used. Such punctuations are: comma, dot, semicolon, colon, exclamation mark, question mark, quotes, parenthesis, bracket etc.

3.3 Writing in Pasangan (Pairs)

There is traditional proverb „peso pangot ninggang lontar, daluang katinggang mangsi” (pangot knive falls over lontar, ink falls over daluang). Such sentence gives information about different mediums for writing Sundanese script.  Peso pangot (pangot knive) is a kind of knive used to scratch lontar leaves. Daluang is traditional paper made from mulberry tree. Differences in the mediums can affect different writing styles[4].

Simple words or sentences can be written directly, for example by arranging ngalagena letters which represent the sounds. However, in certain cases, compound consonants can be found. Here, two ways of writing can be used: (1) using pamaéh, or (2) using pasangan (pairs).

The use of pamaéh is one way to write Sundanese script at basic stage. Another way, the pasangan, is normally used in order to avoid the use of pamaéh in the middle of words, as well as to save writing space. Pasangan is constructed by attaching second ngalagena letter to the first one, thus eliminate the /a/ voice of the first ngalagena.

These are examples of writing, show the differences to write Sundanese script in pamaéh  and pasangan mode.

Ngalagena

Sample

Pamaeh mode

Pasangan mode

(ka)

maskara

kalkum

(ga)

bulgur

ngukngék

(ca)

rancatan

kancing

(ja)

panjang

anjog

(nya)

nyutnyét

(ta)

sapta

waktu

(da)

ganda

munding

(na)

ratna

asnawi

(pa)

lampah

campur

(ba)

jamban

jambu

(ma)

padma

camperenik

(wa)

jadwal

(sa)

raksa

palsu

(ha)

hamham

huthét

 

3.4 Geometry

3.4.1 Aksara Swara

3.4.2 Aksara Ngalagena

3.4.3 Rarangkéns (Attachments)

3.4.4 Numbers

3.4.5 Hand-Writing Strokes

3.4.6 Aksara Swara

3.4.7 Aksara Ngalagena

3.4.8 Rarangkéns (Attachments)

3.4.9 Numbers

 

[END TRANSLATION]

 

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Websites

                 http://unicode.org

                 http://www.evertype.com

                 http://www.babadbali.com/aksarabali

                 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicode

                 http://www.ibm.com

                 http://www.microsoft.com/typography/unicode/cscp.htm

Revision History

2008-12-07

Initial version

 

 

 



[1] see Darsa & Ayatrohaedi (1992:2)

[2] see also: Ekadjati (1989:1)

[3] see also: Vogel (1925: 15-35); Ayatrohaedi (1965)

[4] See variations in texts in section before.